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How Electric Motors Work



If you are interested in how an electric motor works, you have come to the right place. Learn more about Electromagnets, Field coils, Commutator, Rotor speed, and more. Electric motors come in all shapes and sizes, from small to giant. If you have ever admired a large electric motor, you may want to get one for your next project. These electric motors come in all shapes and sizes, and are the future of transportation.


The basic design of an electric motor includes a set of electromagnets. These magnetic systems convert electrical energy into moving energy that turns a shaft or armature. This energy is also known as mechanical energy. In order to convert kinetic energy into electrical energy, an electric motor must first be connected to a battery. Then, an electrical current flows through a coil. The current is anticlockwise, so that the top pole is the north pole. The south pole is located at the bottom of the coil, and so on.

Inductive power flows between objects that are in close proximity, such as a moving or stationary magnet, resulting in an electrical current. These flow-of-energy phenomena can damage metal objects and cause them to heat up. Electric motors and transformers often use thin metal plates, which reduce the amount of parasitic eddy currents. They may also be used to power magnetic levitating trains. To maximize the efficiency of their operation, electromagnets in electric motors and generators must be designed to withstand the side effects of magnetism.

Field coils

To inspect the condition of a field coil in an electric motor, you must remove the old one and replace it with a new one. A starter field coil can cost anywhere from $50 to $100. The price depends on the manufacturer, design, material quality, and size. When choosing a replacement, check for the following signs of wear and tear:

The magnetic field of a motor is a combination of two constant emfs, one of which is generated by a rotating coil. This rotating field is created when two brushes make contact with the same continuous ring. When the field is induced in the rotor, it produces a torque that aligns the central magnet. It is similar to the right hand rule. The torque generated by the field of an electric motor is proportional to the angle between the rotor and the field.


A commutator for electric motors has several parts. The commutator itself consists of several insulated copper segments that are adjacent to one another. The commutator has a riser that has projections on one side, which serve as anchors after the wires are wound onto them. The riser also has slots that facilitate the soldering of the ends of the wires. In this way, the commutator has more segments than slots.

Electric motors use a commutator to ensure that the torque always acts in the same direction. The commutator is an integral part of the electric motor, as it is responsible for controlling the electromagnetic fields in the armature. When the armature is running, the voltage it produces is alternating, and the commutator converts it to direct current. The commutator works to keep the magnetic fields in the coils from rotating because the current is supposed to flow away from the armature and towards the coil.

Rotor speed

Rotor speed of electric motors is the rate at which they rotate when fully loaded at rated voltage. The rated speed is typically listed on an electric motor’s nameplate in RPM. However, the rated speed may vary. It can range anywhere from 0.05% to 5%. The full-speed of a synchronous motor depends on the current flow. Typically, the rated speed of an induction motor is higher than the actual rotor speed.

Various methods are available to estimate the rotor speed. The PFDL method uses the rotor speed as a reference to determine the maximum delivered power. It uses a simplified version of the PFDL description of the overall nonlinear dynamics to link the aerodynamic torque and the electrical torque. It also includes a pressure-dependent parameter, m. A line-fitting procedure is used to evaluate the B-S’ curves.


The mechanical power and rotational speed of electric motors are subject to large uncertainties. Variations in energy, winding flux linkage, and rotor position also affect the mechanical structural analysis. To overcome this problem, this study aims to model the statistical characteristics of torque variations of electric motors. This information will aid mechanical structural analysis in efficient and reliable ways. We will examine a case study on the torsional loading of the shaft by an electric motor to understand how this torque varies with position of the rotor.

The torque of an electric motor is proportional to its speed. It decreases as the speed increases. Speed-torque curves also show the relationship between torque and speed. Torque at zero RPM is higher than its maximum output. It is possible to measure the stall torque by plotting a speed-torque graph. You must perform two measurements with different loads to get the accurate reading. Once you have the maximum torque value, you can determine the speed at which the motor stalls.

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